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I was both shocked and not so shocked about how you got fired. That sounds totally unfair. You worked hard and took on more responsibilities and should be fairly compensated for that. But I guess when it comes to costs and profits, the employer doesn’t care about emotions and fairness.

I myself have been wanting to ask for a promotion but am also afraid of getting fired. There have been so many people at my job who got laid off all of a sudden. Part of me won’t be too surprised if I showed up at my office and got a package at my desk. >_>

Mr. Tako Post author
May 17, 2018 at 9:56 AM

Hi Mrs. FAF! This is exactly why achieving FI is so important. We can no longer trust employers to be fair or even ethical. The mighty dollar comes first with them.

Good luck on your promotion!

Half Life Theory
May 18, 2018 at 3:03 AM

This is exactly what i was thinking! Not fair! I was planning on making my promotion pitch at the end of the year, now i’m strongly reconsidering.

Do i wait for my employer to do the right thing based on the amount of value I’ve brought the company? decisions, decisions.

How would you have done things differently in hindsight? Not asked at all?

Mr. Rational Buck
May 16, 2018 at 6:39 AM

Ahh yes, the bad advice from well-meaning family members.

You should’ve heard the wide range of advice that Ms. Soon-To-Be Rational Buck and I heard when we began looking for a residence.

It’s astounding how we take some advice for granted without really digging deeper because it’s often touted as correct. I really liked the following:

“Repetition of a falsehood doesn’t make it right.”

The truth is the truth, no matter what you “feel” about it. Thanks Mr. Tako, loved the article

Mr. Tako Post author
May 17, 2018 at 9:58 AM

Thanks Mr. RB! I think the falsehoods mainly get spread around because finance is complicated.

Nobody likes complicated of course, they want simple “sound bites” that are easy to share. Reality is decidedly more complicated.

May 16, 2018 at 7:23 AM

Wow, getting fired because you asked for a raise? That’s harsh. Employers have way too much power today. This is probably why wages are stagnant. I think you’re 100% right. Everyone need to do your own research. There are a lot of good information out there too. Don’t trust one source completely. Thanks for the mention!

Mr. Tako Post author
May 17, 2018 at 10:04 AM

No problem Joe! Thanks for sharing!

I totally agree that employers have way too much power. In my case they were trying to take advantage of a trustworthy employee who was a hard worker. I was a sucker for falling for it.

Schoop is completely fine medically, Showalter said, though he did have a stiff neck when attempting to break a bat over his neck on Friday.

Tillman to start at Triple-A Chris Tillman took another step in his recovery process Saturday, getting the start for Triple-A Norfolk.

It was Tillman's third rehab start in the Minors as he works his way back from a back injury he sustained in early May. He went 3 2/3 innings Saturday, giving up eight hits, five runs and three walks while striking out a pair.

Over a start each with Class A Short-Season Aberdeen and Class A Delmarva, Tillman had gone 5 1/3 innings with five earned runs, six hits, three walks and four strikeouts before Saturday.

"This is about getting people out at a level that he should be getting people out if he's coming back here," Showalter said. " … I'd really like to see him have one or two quality starts down there and really pitch like a guy who's better than that level."

is a reporter for based in Baltimore.

Read more: Baltimore Orioles, Darren O'Day, Jonathan Schoop, Chris Tillman
Jones' run-scoring single in 9th breaks up shutout in opener
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BALTIMORE -- You can twist it, turn it, analyze small pieces of the Orioles' season or the entire 81 games already in the books. You can, they say, make statistics say anything you want. Except these numbers, this offense, there is no other way to spin it. Baltimore's lineup continues to be an issue, a baffling, serious problem that has plagued the club since Opening Day.

Yes, the Orioles' defensive shortcomings came into play in Friday night's 7-1 loss to the Angels. And rookie David Hess , who has been on a slide after a fantastic first month in May, did little to quell concern. But for the 34th time this season -- nearly half of their games played -- the O's scored two or fewer runs. Twenty two of those times, like Friday night, they were held to one or fewer. Halos starter Felix Pena -- the club's 11th starter this season -- flummoxed the O's over 5 1/3 innings in his first road start.

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"It's frustrating," manager Buck Showalter said of the lack of offensive production. "I'm not going to get into strike zones and stuff, especially in our situation. It's not attractive, blaming things on umpires.

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"I'd like to see us do better. ... It's the story again, we scored one run and nothing through eight innings. You're not going to win that way."

Video: [email protected]: Nunez smashes a 3-run homer in the 2nd

"Yeah, some people have slow starts," said Nunez. "Some people have good starts. It depends on how you finish. Not how you start. So there's a long way to go still."

Part of the reason Nunez has labored through the first half of the season is recurring discomfort from the right knee he originally injured last September.

"Yeah, I've been fighting with my body a lot," said Nunez. "I've been fighting with my knee and trying to find a way to make an adjustment to learn how to play with the situation, and it takes time and hopefully I'll get through that."

Video: [email protected]: Nunez throws across his body to retire Soto

The drive by Nunez on Tuesday made it two straight nights the Red Sox broke out to a 3-0 lead, and they did it in a more unlikely fashion on Monday on Rick Porcello 's three-run double to the gap in left-center.

Unlike in Monday's game, Boston's offense didn't slow down after the early three-spot. J.D. Martinez capped a big night for the visitors by smashing his MLB-leading 26th homer of the season, a two-run shot to left in the ninth. Martinez finished with four RBIs to increase his MLB-leading total in that category to 71.

Moreland exits early with back spasms

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It was in the fifth inning when the Sox blew it open. After Sandy Leon struck out, the next five Red Sox batters singled, including starter Brian Johnson for his first MLB hit, bringing three more runs home before Xander Bogaerts cleared the bases with a three-run homer to put a cap on a six-run frame.

"Just a good day," said Martinez. "We came out, we kept the bases occupied, pretty much gave ourselves a chance where we kept passing the baton and getting the next guy up. Had a big hit from Bogey there early in the game, and everyone pretty much kept feeding off that."

Video: [email protected]: Martinez grounds a 2-run single in the 5th

With Dustin Pedroia having missed all but three games so far this season due to a left knee injury, Nunez and Brock Holt have shared second base for the Red Sox.

Thornburg to be activated, excited for Sox debut

Holt went 3-for-3 in Monday's 4-3 win, but manager Alex Cora interestingly went to Nunez instead on Tuesday, and the move paid quick dividends. Nunez added a quirky double in the top of the eighth when he slapped a grounder that went just off the outstretched glove of third baseman Anthony Rendon and into short left.

Cora had said before the game he was keeping Holt fresh for Wednesday's 11:05 a.m. ET contest. Nunez will again start at second on Wednesday, with Holt spotting Bogaerts at short.

Figure 1:A selective sweep
Under natural selection, a new beneficial mutation will rise in frequency (prevalence) in a population. A schematic shows polymorphisms along a chromosome, including the selected allele, before and after selection. Ancestral alleles are shown in grey and derived (non-ancestral) alleles are shown in blue. As a new positively-selected allele (red) rises to high frequency, nearby linked alleles on the chromosome ‘hitchhike’ along with it to high frequency, creating a ‘selective sweep.’
© 2008 Nature Education All rights reserved.

Within the last decade, our ability to probe our own species for evidence of selection has increased dramatically due to the flood of genetic data that have been generated. Starting with the complete sequence of the human genome (Lander , 2001), which provides a framework and standard reference for all human genetics, key data sets include the completed or near-completed genomes of several related species (e.g., chimpanzee, macaque, gorilla, and orangutan), a public database of known genetic variants in humans, and surveys of genetic variation in hundreds of individuals in multiple populations (Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, 2005; Gibbs , 2007; Sherry , 2001; International HapMap Consortium, 2007). With these new data, it is now possible to scan the entire human genome in search of signals of natural selection .

Although the study of natural selection in humans is still in an early stage, the new data, building on decades of earlier work, are beginning to reveal some of the landscape of selection in our species. In fact, researchers have identified many genetic loci at which selection has likely occurred, and some of the selective pressures involved have been elucidated. Three significant forces that have been identified thus far include changes in diet, changes in climate , and infectious disease .

The domestication of plants and animals roughly 10,000 years ago profoundly changed human diets, and it gave those individuals who could best digest the new foods a selective advantage . The best understood of these adaptations is lactose tolerance (Sabeti , 2006; Bersaglieri , 2004). The ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk, usually disappears before adulthood in mammals, and the same is true in most human populations. However, for some people, including a large fraction of individuals of European descent, the ability to break down lactose persists because of a mutation in the lactase gene (). This suggests that the allele became common in Europe because of increased nutrition from cow's milk, which became available after the domestication of cattle. This hypothesis was eventually confirmed by Todd Bersaglieri and his colleagues, who demonstrated that the lactase persistence allele is common in Europeans (nearly 80% of people of European descent carry this allele), and it has evidence of a selective sweep spanning roughly 1 million base pairs (1 megabase). Indeed, lactose tolerance is one of the strongest signals of selection seen anywhere in the genome. Sarah Tishkoff and colleagues subsequently found a distinct LCT mutation also conferring lactose tolerance, in this case in African pastoralist populations, suggesting the action of convergent evolution (Tishkoff ., 2007).

The development of agriculture also changed the selective pressures on humans in another way: Increased population density made the transmission of infectious diseases easier, and it probably expanded the already substantial role of pathogens as agents of natural selection. That role is reflected in the traces left by selection in human genetic diversity; multiple loci associated with disease resistance have been identified as probable sites of selection. In most cases, the resistance is to the same disease—malaria (Kwiatkowski, 2005).

Malaria's power to drive selection is not surprising, as it is one of the human population's oldest diseases and remains one of the greatest causes of morbidity and mortality in the world today, infecting hundreds of millions of people and killing 1 to 2 million children in Africa each year. In fact, malaria was responsible for the first case of positive selection demonstrated genetically in humans. In the 1940s and 1950s, J. B. S. Haldane and A. C. Allison demonstrated that the geographical distribution of the sickle-cell mutation (Glu6Val) in the beta hemoglobin gene () was limited to Africa and correlated with malaria endemicity, and that individuals who carry the sickle-cell trait are resistant to malaria (Allison, 1954). Since then, many more alleles for malaria resistance have shown evidence of selection, including more mutations in , as well as mutations causing other red blood cell disorders (e.g., a-thalassemia, G6PD deficiency, and ovalocytosis) (Kwiatkowski, 2005).

Malaria also drove one of the most striking genetic differences between populations. This difference involves the Duffy antigen gene (), which encodes a membrane protein used by the malaria parasite to enter red blood cells, a critical first step in its life cycle. A mutation in that disrupts the protein, thus conferring protection against malaria, is at a frequency of 100% throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa and virtually absent elsewhere; such an extreme difference in allele frequency is very rare for humans.

As proto-Europeans and Asians moved northward out of Africa, they experienced less sunlight and colder temperature, new environmental forces that exerted selective pressure on the migrants. Exactly why reduced sunlight should be a potent selective force is still debated, but it has become clear that humans have experienced positive selection at numerous genes to finely tune the amount of skin pigment they produce, depending on the amount of sunlight exposure.

The role of selection in controlling human pigmentation is not a new idea; in fact, it was first advanced by William Wells in 1813, long before Darwin's formulation of natural selection (Wells, 1818). In recent years, signals of positive selection have been identified in many genes, with some signals solely in Europeans, some solely in Asians, and some shared across both continents (Lao , 2007; McEvoy , 2006; Williamson , 2007). Evidence for purifying selection has also been found to maintain dark skin color in Africa, where sunlight exposure is great.

A good example of selection for lighter pigmentation is the gene , which was one of the first to be characterized. Rebecca Lamason and her colleagues identified a mutation in the zebrafish homologue of this gene that is responsible for pigmentation phenotype . The investigators then demonstrated that a human variant in the gene explains roughly one-third of the variation in pigmentation between Europeans and West Africans, and that the European variant had likely been a target of selection (Lamason , 2005).In related work, Angela Hancock and her colleagues examined many genes involved in metabolism , and they showed that alleles of these genes show evidence of positive selection and correlate strongly with climate, suggesting that humans adapted to cooler climates by changing their metabolic rates (Hancock ., 2008).

Figure 2

While these instances of selection illustrate the power this line of research has to answer important biological and historical questions, in most cases, little or nothing of the underlying story is understood. For the great majority of selective sweeps, the pressure that drove selection, the trait selected for, and even the specific gene involved are unknown. Understanding these will require case-by-case study, identifying the possible causal mutations within each region based on strength of signal and function (e.g., mutations that alter amino acids or gene regulatory regions), and then finding the biological effects of each.

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